Part 1 of a multi-part posting
The Muster and Valuation for the Hundred of South Erpingham 1522 is held in The National Archives at Kew (document reference E101/61/16). The document is in excellent condition and records 1,460 people, who are listed on the Norfolk Transcription Archive.
By way of comparison, the Michaelmas 1664 Hearth Tax Returns only record 1,028 people in the same area.
However, finding a name and valuation alone may not mean a great deal, so what follows is a brief explanation and analysis.
The valuation mostly assesses wealth by 'Land', 'Goods and Cattle' and 'Movables'. The minimum assessment for land being One Pound and that for goods and cattle, and movables being Three Pounds.
In subsequent subsidies, the tax paid on these valuations was four shillings in the Pound for land and two shillings and eight pence in the Pound for goods and cattle.
Those who were poor and held less than the minimum taxable amount are recorded as 'nihil' (nothing).
The survey shows many as being assessed in both land and either movables, or goods and cattle. When it came to paying the subsidy, tax was only paid on whichever brought the greatest revenue to the Crown.
The assessment of land was on its income, rather than capital value. The assessment on goods and cattle, movables etc was on the capital value.
A thorough explanation of the taxation system can be found in Richard Hoyle's guide "Tudor Taxation Records - A guide for users" ISBN 1 873162 11 1.
Other books dealing with the subject include,
"Tudor and Stuart Norwich" by John Pound, ISBN 0 85033 657 0
"The development of Agrarian Capitalism, Land and Labour in Norfolk 1440-1580" by Jane Whittle, ISBN 0 19 820842 1.
Results 1 to 10 of 16
03-12-2004, 5:41 PM #1GeoffersGuest
South Erpingham, muster + valuation 1522
03-12-2004, 5:48 PM #2GeoffersGuest
Analysis of entries:
The numbers assessed in various bands indicate the percentages who were poor, rich and those inbetween.
56.5% (261) were assessed at less than 1 Pd
30.3% (140) were assessed between 1 and 3 Pds
7.1% (33) were assessed between 3 and 10 Pds
6.0% (28) were assessed over 10 Pds
Goods and Cattle, and Movables
54.9% (492) were assessed at less than 3 Pds
29.5% (265) were assessed between 3 and 10 Pds
7.5% (67) were assessed between 10 and 15 Pds
8.1% (73) were assessed over 15 Pds.
03-12-2004, 5:50 PM #3GeoffersGuest
Richest 25 individuals assessed in land
Sir Thomas BOLAYN, at Blickling, Wickmere and Calthorpe, 68Pds
Lord MORLEY, at Buxton, 52Pds
Sir Philip CALTHORP, at Erpingham and Calthorpe, 41Pds
John BRAMPTON, at Brampton, 40Pds
Duke of Suffolk, at Cawston, 40Pds
John THETFORD, at Hevingham, 35Pds
Sextayn of Bury, at Aylsham, 26Pds 13s 4d
John HEYDON, at Thwaite, 24Pds
William BOTRY, at Burgh, 21Pds
Sir Humfrey GREY, at Saxthorpe, 21Pds
Robt HOWARD, at Booton, 20Pds
Bishop of Norwich, at Marsham and Hevingham, 20Pds
William WALISH, at Colby, 16Pds 13s 4d
Robt NORGATE, at Aylsham, 14Pds
Edmond WITH, at Aylsham, 13Pds 6s 8d
Robt LUCY, at Belaugh, 13Pds 6s 8d
John BETTES, at Irmingland, 13Pds 6s 8d
Margery LUMPNOR, at Mannington, 13Pds 6s 8d
John STUBBES, at Scottow, 13Pds 6s 8d
Thomas ABBES senior, at Buxton, 12Pds
Willam BUSHOP, at Marsham, 10Pds 13s 4d
Richard CROPPE, at Aylsham, 10Pds
Sir (….) GARNISHE, at Baconsthorpe, 10Pds
John HORSMAN, at Booton, 10Pds
Sir Frannceys CALTHORP, at Lammas, 10Pds
03-12-2004, 5:52 PM #4GeoffersGuest
Richest 25 individuals in goods and cattle/movables
John HEYDON, at Thwaite, 200Pds
John BRAMPTON, at Brampton, 140Pds
Simond SKOTTOW, at Swanton, 133Pds 6s 8d
Robt HARWARD, at Booton, 100Pds
Thomas RAYNES, at Hevingham, 100Pds
John JAMES, at Aylsham, 80Pds
Robt NORGATE, at Aylsham, 80Pds
Richard CROPPE, at Aylsham, 70Pds
Willam BUSHOP, at Marsham, 66Pds 13s 4d
Edward RUMPE, at Oulton, 66Pds 13s 4d
Edmond WITHE, at Aylsham, 66Pds 13s 4d
Thomas HILL, at Aylsham, 62Pds
Thomas ABBES senior, at Buxton, 60Pds
John STUBBES, at Scottow, 56Pds 11s
Henry BAN, at Aylsham, 50Pds
John PURRY, at Aylsham, 50Pds
John BENYNGTON, at Aylsham, 40 Pds
Audry STUBBES, at Buxton, 40Pds
Raaf BAYSPOLE, at Coltishall, 40Pds
Ric HALLE, at Hautbois Magna, 40Pds
John MORTOFTE, at Itteringham, 40Pds
Margery LUMPNOR, at Mannington, 40Pds
Thomas SMYTH, at Saxthorpe, 40Pds
John CROME, at Swanton, 40Pds
John SKOTTOW, at Stratton, 35Pds
03-12-2004, 5:55 PM #5GeoffersGuest
This shows the relative size of the most populous parishes. If each person assessed represents a family and Buxton is believed to have had a population of about 280, a very rough guess at total population of each place may found by multiplying the below figures by 5.5.
Aylsham assessment lists 265 people
Swanton Abbott, 55
Stratton Strawless, 34
03-12-2004, 5:59 PM #6GeoffersGuest
10 richest parishes overall
Aylsham 1,525Pds 18s 6d
Buxton, 306Pds 6s
Hevingham 299Pds 10s
Cawston, 295Pds 1s
Swanton Abbott, 286Pds 13s 4d
Marsham, 266Pds 14s 4d
Thwaite, 262Pds 6s 4d
Scottow, 238Pds 4s 8d
Booton, 214Pds 1s
Brampton, 197Pds 7s 4d
My analysis the document does go into greater detail and covers all parisehs in the Hundred of South Erpingham. If you are interested in this part of Norfolk and wish for further information, please feel free to ask
05-12-2004, 11:39 PM #7
Originally Posted by Geoffers
- Join Date
- Oct 2004
I wonder how many years it'll take before I'm far enough back to start looking at these sort of documents?
Do they name the general 'ag lab' type anywhere or is it just those with land, goods/cattle and movables?
And what sort of stuff are 'goods' and 'movables'?
(I do think movables is a great word. 'I'm sorry, I won't be at work today - I'm having an attack of the movables'. )
06-12-2004, 7:57 AM #8GeoffersGuestOriginally Posted by Pam Downes
However, the 1522 valuation (and the resulting subsidy) intended to replace the tenths and fifteenths form of taxation and being 'new' was more complete. So this valuation for South Erpingham does show all families from rich to poor, which makes it particularly valuable to those interested in history. You'll find the very rich, those who were well off famers and tradesmen, poorer farmers and workers and those who were destitute.
Goods and movables are defined in a statute of 1523 as either being coin, or wheat
"any such person hath of his own plate, stock of merchandise, all manner of corns and blades severed from the ground, household stuff and all other goods and chattels moveable as well within this realm as without, and of all such sums of money that to him is owing, whereof he trusteth in his conscience surely to be paid," an exception was made of "such sums of money as he oweth and in his conscience surely to pay and except also apparell of all persns belonging to their bodies, saving jewels of gold."
06-12-2004, 8:59 AM #9GeoffersGuest
Part 1 of 3......
Further to my last reply and as a way of illustrating the coverage of the valuation, I've transcribed below the valuation for a typical small parish, Hautbois Magna:
Sir Nicolas BLAKE parson ther sworn & exmined saith & deposith that the yerly value of the bnfice is .... viii li
In goods & catalles charged in Tunsted Hundred
The Lord Dacre of the South is lord there and not inhabited within the said county of Norfolk
Thomas FELMYNGHAM in landes be yer xlvi s viii d (46s 8d)
In goodes and catalles vi li (6Pds)
John PASTON in lands yerly xx s (20s)
In goods and catalles xii li (12Pds)
Robt BURMAN in land yerly xxvi s viii d (26s 8d)
In goods and catalles x li (10Pds)
Ric HALLE in lands be yer xxvi s viii d (26s 8d)
In goods and catalls xl li (40Pds)
Edmnd LYNCOLNE in lands yerly xxvi s viii d (26s 8d)
In godes and catalls xx li (20Pds)
Willam NEWMAN in land yerly xx vi s viii d (26s 8d)
In goodes and catalls viii li (8Pds)
Willam HARMAN in lands yerly iii s iiii d (3s 4d)
In godes & catalls xx s (20s)
Last edited by Geoffers; 06-12-2004 at 9:19 AM. Reason: duplicate text
06-12-2004, 9:17 AM #10GeoffersGuest
Part 2 of 3.....
Willam HYGHAM in goods & catall xl s (40s)
Robt WEBSTER in godes and catalles xl s (40s)
Robt FOSTER in godes & catalles xl s (40s)
Henry HALLE in godes & catalles iii li (4Pds)
John KEMPE in goods & Catalls xx s (20 s)
Thomas POTTER in godes & catalles xxvi s viii d (26s 8d)
Robt WALSH in godes & catall iiii mrk (4 marks = 2Pds 13s 4d)
Thomas HALLE xxvi s viii d in godes & cat. (26s 8d)
Nicolas BROND - nl
Thoms ROPPYS - nl
Willm THYRNE - nl
Thomas WALLOR - nl in bovis
Ric WOODE - nl in bovis
The Church Stok - nl
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